Sources and Definitions
Population (2010): 29.1 million
Area: 652,090 sq km
Languages: Pashtu, Dari (Persian)
Currency: Afghani (AFN)
GDP per Capita PPP (2007): USD 1,054
HDI Rank (2007): 181 of 182
Remittances (2008): Not Available
Net Migration Rate (2005-2010): 7.5 migrants /1,000 population
Immigrants (2010): 0.3%
Women as a Percentage of Immigrants (2010): 43.6%
Population under 15 (2010): 45.8%
Adult HIV Prevalence (2007): <0.2%
Migration for economic reasons to countries outside Afghanistan, such as Pakistan and Iran and the Gulf region is common. In smaller numbers, there is also migration to Europe and North America. The wage levels in Pakistan, Iran and the Gulf region are often higher than in Afghanistan and that acts as a pull factor. In addition, religious, linguistic and cultural affinities also play a major role in emigrating to those countries. Economic migration is an important coping strategy for Afghans, and indeed the wider economy. While the banking system in Afghanistan has improved significantly since 2002, banks only exist in large city centers and the banking culture and facilities are gradually developing, and the hawala system (informal value transfer system) is used as an alternative for sending remittances home.
Irregular labour migration, high numbers of returnees, poor social infrastructure at the community level in rural areas, and the volatile security situation in some parts of the country are the main factors triggering high levels of cross-border and internal population movements. In addition, Afghanistan is confronted with a significant human trafficking problem as a country of origin, as well as a transit and destination site for women and children trafficked for varous forms of exploitation. There is a sizable amount of evidence suggesting that forced marriage, debt settlement, forced prostitution, as well as sexual and domestic servitude, are the most rampant forms of trafficking in Afghanistan, with victims abducted in some cases.
Publications and reports
Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled http://www.molsamd.gov.af/
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