The current membership of the Colombo Process includes 12 member states – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam.

  • Members Countries
  • Afghanistan
  • Bangladesh
  • Cambodia
  • China
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Philippines
  • Sri Lanka
  • Thailand
  • Viet Nam
Afghanistan

CP FOCAL POINT

Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled (MoLSAMD)

1st Makroryoon Kabul

Tel : +93 70 0354 948/+93 20 2103 710
Capital:Kabul Area:652,090 sq km Languages:Pashtu, Dari Population:31.63 million (World Bank, 2014) Population Growth(annual %):3% (World Bank, 2014) Urban Population(% of total):26% (World Bank, 2014) Fertility Rate Total (birth per woman):6.5 (UNICEF, 2009) Adult Literacy Rate(15+ years, both sexes, %):38.1% (UNESCO UIS Estimation, 2015) Human Development Index:0.465 (Rank: 171) (UNDP, 2015) GDP:20.04 billion USD (World Bank, 2014) GDP Per Capital:633.6 USD (World Bank, 2014) Net Migration Rate(per 1000):: -2.65 (per 1000) (2010-2015) (UN DESA, 2013) International Migration Stock:Total: 105090 (m: 59343 vs. f: 45747 (UNICEF, 2013) Minimum Age For Employment:18

Afghanistan

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

Cross border mobility has been an essential aspect of Afghan history, including migration for both seasonal and permanent employment, although labour migration through government-to-government agreements or using the services of recruitment agencies are still new to the country. Afghan workers, almost all of whom are men, predominantly migrate to Pakistan and Iran, although some migrate to the Gulf region in search of work.

Remittances from overseas Afghan workers are significant sources of incomes both for the national economy and migrants’ families. While the official figure indicates that personal remittances account for 1.3% of the GDP (World Bank, 2014), the actual ratio could be much higher as the majority of migrants rely on informal remittance channels and these transactions are not taken into account in the official figure.

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled (MoLSAMD) Labor affairs and administration, social protection and welfare of Afghan overseas workers URL
Ministry of Refugees and Repatriation (MoRR) Planning and coordinating policies related to migration URL
The Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Interior Facilitating the signing of MoUs with CODs, Visa process, and all other relevant diplomatic Affairs. URL
Key legislation and policy
Legislation/ policy Key aspects Download
Regulation for Sending Afghan Workers Abroad, 1384 [2005] The regulation stipulates the qualifications and obligations of Afghan workers, obligations of the responsible ministry and those of employer authorities. PDF
Afghan Labor Law 2007 The Article 150 of the Afghanistan's Labour Law vest the authority to the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled to send Labour overseas for the purpose of reducing unemployment. The regulation for Sending Labour overseas regulates the labour dispatch abroad.  n/a
Afghanistan National Development Strategy 2008-2013 Pillar 7 focuses on bilateral agreements to ensure migrants’ rights in destination countries. PDF
Bilateral agreement on Labour Migration
Labour migration in general Qatar (2015)
Negotiations underway Iran, Kuwait, UAE, KSA
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Policies / Legislation framework A machine-readable passport system was introduced in 2013, which enables to collect and store biometric data of Afghan populations including those of migrant workers.
Skills & Qualification Recognition The Ministry of Education runs Technical Schools and the MoLSAMD administers Vocational Training centers. Establishment of a National Qualification Authority is envisaged, meanwhile to fill the gap the ILO office in Kabul agreed to work on a certification mechanism specifically for the workers to be dispatched overseas.
Ethical Recruitment A regulation for Private Sector Employment Services Companies has been developed and submitted for the review of the Ministry of Justice. Also a Manual has been drafted for Issuing Permit to the Recruiting Agencies.
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment Pre- departure orientation and empowerment is stipulated as a responsibility of the recruiting agency in the agreement to be signed between the recruiting agency and the Ministry. Every single recruiting agency signs a contract with the Ministry as part of the licensing procedure. Also there is a recruiting agencies association and majority of the agencies are members to this association. However, the contract is individually signed between the ministry and recruitment agency.
Remittances Encouraged to be channeled through the bank. Measures yet to be determined.
Labour Market Analysis A new Directorate for the Labour Market Studies has been added to the organizational structure of the General Directorate of Manpower and Labour Affairs Regulation. Labour Market Analysis is the mandate of this Directorate.
Publication and Report
Sample Survey of Casual Workers at Report of Labor Corners (in Pashtu)
Sample Survey of Casual Workers at Report of Labor Corners (in Pashtu)
Publication in 2012 Download

Last updated of this page: 20 / 03 / 2017

Bangladesh

CP FOCAL POINT

Ministry of Expatriates' Welfare and Overseas Employment

Old Elephant Rd, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Tel : +88 02 8333 604
Capital :Dhaka Area :147,570 sq km Languages :Bengali Population :159.1 million (2014, World Bank) Population Growth :1.2 % (2011-2015 World Bank) Urban Population(% of total): 34% (2014, World Bank) Fertility Rate Total(birth per woman) : 2.21 (2012, World Bank) Adult Literacy Rate (15+ years, both sexes, %): 61.5 % (UNESCO UIS estimation, 2015) Human Development Index :0.570 (Rank: 142) (2015, UNDP) GDP :172.9 billion USD (2014, World Bank) GDP Per Capital :1,086.8 USD (2014, World Bank) Net Migration Per Rate :2.65 (per 1000) (2010-2015) (2013 UN DESA) International Migration Stock(per 1000) :Total: 1 396 514 (m:1 209 928 vs. f:186 586 (2013, UNICEF) Minimum Age For Employment :14

Bangladesh

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

International labour migration is integral part of the economic and social fabric of the country. While migration from Bangladesh has been traditionally a male phenomenon, there has been a steady increase of women migrants in recent years, predominantly to the domestic work sector in GCC (approx. 7% of the total number of labour migrants; BMET 2011). Men migrate to UAE, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, and Singapore as the top destination countries where they are employed mostly in the construction and manufacturing sectors as unskilled workers (50%), skilled (31%), and semi-skilled workers (16%) (BMET, 2009).

Overseas employment and remittances play an important role in the national economy of Bangladesh. Remittances flow has been increasing every year (15.8 USD billions in 2015, ranking as the 10th top remittance-receiving country (World Bank, 2015)) and so its share to GDP (8.7 % in 2014, World Bank). The growing trend in remittance inflows is driven by factors such as: the overall increase in the number of Bangladeshi migrant workers; the diversification of destinations; large diaspora populations in OECD; and, the national policy that supports the use of formal channels for sending remittances.

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Ministry of Expatriates’ Welfare and Overseas Employment (MEWOE) Management of overseas employment and promotion of migrant workers’ welfare through policies, plans, laws, rules and regulations. URL
Bureau of Manpower Employment and Training (BMET) Conducting informal and special training courses. Emigration clearance for migrant workers. Maintenance of database network for the migrant workers. Welfare of overseas Bangladeshi workers and their families. Regulate and monitor licenses of recruiting agencies. URL
Key legislation and policy
Legislation/ policy Key aspects Download
Overseas Employment Act 2013 First law on labour migration. All migrant workers are guaranteed basic labour rights and have access to labour courts. PDF
Bilateral agreement on Labour Migration
Labour Migration in general Libya (2008); Malaysia (2003, 2012); Qatar (1988; 2008); UAE (2007); Rep. of Korea (2010, 2012)
Specific to domestic workers Jordan (2012)
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Policies / Legislation framework MEWOE promotes migrant online registration and created a data bank of registered job seekers. A SMART card has been introduced to store personal and job information of migrant workers.  
Skills & Qualification Recognition A number of systems are put in place to regulate and monitor recruitment agencies:
  • Grading system for recruitment agencies
  • Code of conduct for recruitment agencies
  • The inter-agency Vigilance Task Force to monitor the migration process, ensure the accountability and transparence of recruiting agencies.
  • Online registration for recruitment agencies to keep out unauthorized intermediaries from the business.
 
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment BMET organizes country-specific PDOs about service conditions, working environment, culture, salary, remittance system, as well as basic language training. Compulsory trade testing for female migrating in as domestic workers has been introduced to reduce the vulnerability of exploitation.
Remittances Special privilege policy of expatriate Bangladeshis for remittance has been approved in 2008. In 2010 the “Expatriates’ Welfare Bank”- Probashi Kallyan Bank (PKB) - has been set up as a specialized bank designed in support of needs of migrant workers and returnees in the areas of banking and finance.
Others The National Sustainable Development Strategy 2010-21 (NSDS) calls to put in place investment schemes and social security schemes for returnee migrant workers. The Government is also committed to fight human trafficking across Bangladesh borders and “The Human Trafficking Deterrence and Suppression Ordinance” has been approved in 2011.
Cambodia

CP FOCAL POINT

Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training

Building 3, Russian Confederation Blvd., Sangkat Toek Laak, Khan Tuol Kork, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Tel : +855 12 218 789/ 16 888 078 Email : chuopnarath@gmail.com
Capital:Phnom Penh Area:181,035 sq km Languages:Khmer Population:15.33 million (World Bank, 2014) Population growth (annual %):1.6 (World Bank, 2014) Urban population (% of total):20.5 (World Bank, 2014) Fertility rate, total (birth per woman):2.6 (World Bank, 2014) Adult Literacy Rate (15 + years, both sexes, %):73.9 (UNICEF, 2013) Human Development Index:0.555 (Rank: 143) (UNDP, 2014) GDP:16.78 billion USD (World Bank, 2014) GDP per capita:1.094.6 USD (World Bank, 2014) Net Migration Rate (per 1000):-2.33 (UNICEF, 2015) International Migration Stock: Total: 75,566 (UNICEF, 2013) Minimum age for employment:15 (for full time work in non-hazardous sectors)

Cambodia

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

Domestic and cross-border migration has been one of the most significant transformational changes in Cambodian society over the last 15 years and is set to continue. Demographic and social transformations, steady urbanization, structural changes in land use and land management, improved spatial connectivity and regional economic integration have spurred labour migration in all its forms, being permanent, seasonal, temporary, within or outside the country.

The main country of destination is Thailand where approximately 0.9 million Cambodian migrant workers are working and over 50 per cent of them are women. The Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (2013) estimates that approximately 80 per cent of all migrant workers to Malaysia were engaged as female domestic workers. 

At the macro level, the World Bank estimated the annual inwards remittance at USD 200 million in 2005 (3.2 percent of the annual GDP), with a sharp increase to USD 364 million in 2010 (3.2 percent of the annual GDP). However remittances inflows have shown a steady decrease in the two following years (USD354 million and USD256 million in 2011 and 2012 respectively).

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation

Contributes in the policy development and implementation in coordination with the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training, facilitates the process of migration related agreements, and provides assistances to migrant workers abroad.

URL
Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MoLVT) Coordinates the implementation of the Labour Migration policy in collaboration with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (MOFAIC), and the Ministry of Interior (MOI). URL
Key legislation and policy
Legislation/ policy Key aspects Download
Labour Migration Policy for Cambodia for 2015-2018 (2014)

The document sets out a framework from which to govern labour migration effectively, empower and protect the rights of women and men migrant workers, and enhance the impact of migration on development.

PDF
Sub-decree 190 on Sending Cambodian Workers Abroad Through Private Recruitment Agencies (2011)

The sub decree is intended to govern the sending of Cambodian workers abroad, which includes the following goals: ii) market identification and provision of overseas jobs for Cambodian workers; ii) Improved living conditions; iii) safety of Cambodian workers abroad; iv) development of human resources; v) Implementation of the government policy on poverty reduction.

 PDF
8 Prakas affiliated with Sub-decree 190 The 8 Prakas provide concrete guideline and policy implementation that support management of the sending of Cambodian workers abroad through private recruitment agencies (PRA). Those include the Use of Term, Recruitment Process and Pre-Departure Orientation Training, PRA, Complaint Mechanism, Inspection on PRA, Penalty and Reward, On Site Service of the PRA and Repatriation, and Promulgation of Minimum Standards of Job Placement Services Abroad Contract.

Prakas 045

Prakas 046

Prakas 047

Prakas 249

Prakas 250

Prakas 251

Prakas 252

Prakas 253

Cambodia Labour Law (1997)

The law governs relations between employers and workers resulting from employment contracts to be performed within Cambodia, regardless of where the contract was made and what the nationality and residences of the contracted parties are.

PDF
Bilateral agreement on Labour Migration
MoUs on Labour Migration Republic of Korea (2006); Japan (2007); Kuwait (2009); Qatar (2011); Singapore (2012); Thailand (2015); Timor Leste (2016)
Specific to domestic workers Saudi Arabia (2016); Malaysia (2015)
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Policies / Legislation framework

Sub-decree 190 along with the 8 Prakas were promulgated in order to facilitate the management of the sending of Cambodian workers abroad through private recruitment agencies.

The government has recently developed or updated a number of migration management policies. It adopted its first National Policy on Labour Migration in 2010, and this was updated for the period 2015 – 2018. Strategic provisions related to migration management were included in the National Population Policy (2015) as well as the National Employment Policy (2014 – 2018).

Skills & Qualification Recognition

The MoLVT is working on the draft policy on Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) that will include Recognition for Prior Learning, which might draw participation from migrant returnees who process some skills from their experiences.

Ethical Recruitment Article 22 of Sub-decree 190 states that all advertisements of the recruitment agencies shall be appropriate and comprehensive according to the facts regarding selection requirements, working conditions and benefits to be entitled during the employment without lying or cover-up.
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment

Article 20 and 21 of Sub-degree 190 states that the recruitment agencies shall provide workers with information on communication means, address and telephone numbers for contacting the Cambodian embassy or representative mission to the receiving country and the MoVLT during the pre-departure orientation training. The recruitment agencies shall be responsible for the working conditions and living conditions before recruiting workers for overseas work such as types of work, workplace, working hours, skills, salary, benefits, health insurance, accommodation, transport, security and safety within the working and accommodation areas.

Remittances

The most reliable and preferred money transfer is via a bank. However, most Cambodian migrants working in Thailand send money home through a private agent. The agent will contact an agent in Cambodia who will inform the recipient household directly or through a relative or the village chief. The Cambodian agent will then arrange a meeting with a family member. The migrant pays the amount to be transferred to the agent in Thailand, while at the same time the agent in Cambodia will give the money to a family member. (ILO, 2010)

Labour Market Analysis

The National Employment Agency (NEA) in close coordination with MoLVT provides updated information on labour market, vacancy announcement and training opportunity. Major means of information dissemination include MoLVT Website and Facebook, NEA Website and Job Centers at the provincial setting.

 Others 

Migrant Resource Centers (MRCs) in six provinces (Battambang, Kampong Cham, Prey Veng, Banteay Meanchey, Kampot and Kampong Thom) and one MRC located in MoLVT (run by Department of Employment and Manpower) play important roles in collecting, producing and disseminating information on safe and legal migration with relevant stakeholders working on protection of migrant workers and potential migrant workers from labour exploitation, providing rights-based counselling and support services to migrant workers and potential migrant workers on safe and legal migration. In addition, the MRC within the MoLVT also provides complaint mechanism services related to migrant workers.  

Publication and Report
Cross-Border Labour Migration in Cambodia: Considerations for the National Employment Policy
Cross-Border Labour Migration in Cambodia: Considerations for the National Employment Policy
Published in 2013 Download
Assessing Vulnerability and Responses to Environmental Changes in Cambodia
Assessing Vulnerability and Responses to Environmental Changes in Cambodia
Published in 2016 Download
Assessment Report On Profile Of Returned Cambodian Migrant Workers
Assessment Report On Profile Of Returned Cambodian Migrant Workers
Published in 2016 Download

Last updated of this page: 20 / 12 / 2016

China

CP FOCAL POINT

Department of International Trade and Economic Affairs, Chinese Ministry of Commerce

No.2 Dong Chang'an Avenue, Beijing, P.R.China

Tel : +86 10 6519 7173 Fax : +86 10 6519 7992
Capital:Beijing Area:9,634,057 sq km Languages:Mandarin Population:1.364 billion (World Bank, 2014) Population Growth(annual %):0.5 (World Bank, 2014) Urban Population(% of total):51.9 (UNICEF, 2012) Fertility Rate Total (birth per woman):1.6 (World Bank, 2014) Adult Literacy Rate(15+ years, both sexes, %):96.3 (UNESCO UIS Estimation, 2015) Human Development Index:0.727 (Rank: 90) (UNDP, 2014) GDP:10.35 trillion USD (World Bank, 2014) GDP Per Capital:7,590.0 USD (World Bank, 2014) Net Migration Rate(per 1000):0.2 (UNDP, 2014) International Migration Stock:Total: 848 511 (m: 440 482 vs. f: 408 029) (UNICEF, 2013) Minimum Age For Employment:16

China

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

There are three main categories of labour migrants for overseas employment: 1) those employed by Chinese companies on contracted projects overseas; 2) those who are placed by Chinese enterprises to work in enterprises overseas; 3) and those who migrate individually by using the services of an overseas employment agency. The majority of Chinese migrant workers belong to either the first or the second category, and individual labour migrants are still minority.

While China ranks second in the world as the remittance receiving county (the country received 63.9 USD billions in 2015; World Bank), given the significant size of the national economy, the personal remittances represent only 0.3% of the GDP (World Bank, 2014). While the proportion to GDP is marginal, the remittances inflow has greatly contributed to improving rural livelihoods, especially in the densely populated interior provinces.

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Department of International Trade and Economic Affairs, MOFCOM Policy formation/ implementation on
multilateral and regional trade and economic cooperation; management of economic and technical cooperation with UN and other international organizations
URL
Department of Outward Investment and Economic Cooperation, Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) (Responsibilities relevant to overseas employment): guide the work of credit rating of enterprises engaged in foreign labor services cooperation; undertake multilateral and bilateral cooperation involving outward investment and economic cooperation; lead the work related to the protection of the rights and interests of dispatched workers. URL
China International Contractors Association (CHINCA) National organization of Chinese international project investors, contractors, labor service companies and related service providers. URL
Key legislation and policy
Legislation/ policy Key aspects Download
Exit-Entry Administration Law of the People's Republic of China (Order No. 57 of the President of the People's Republic of China, 2012) The Law regulates the exit and entry of Chinese citizens as well as those of foreign nationals. PDF
Regulations on Management of Foreign Labor Service Cooperation (2012) The Regulations are formulated to standardize the foreign labor service cooperation, ensure the legitimate interests of labor service personnel and promote the healthy development of foreign labor service cooperation. URL
The Legal Rights and Interests of Overseas Labourers
Notice (1998)
The government Notice issued in order to strengthen the protection of legal rights and interests of overseas labors and avoid any damages. URL
Bilateral agreement on Labour Cooperation
MoUs on labour cooperation Confidential
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Policies / Legislation framework

The management of labor service personnel to go to other countries or regions and work for foreign enterprises and organizations shall be according to Regulations on Management of Foreign Labor Service Cooperation.

The management of expatriates working abroad under overseas contracted engineering projects shall be according to Regulations on Management of Overseas Contracted Engineering Project and provisions of competent commerce department of the State Council and competent housing and urban-rural construction department thereof.

Measures for management of foreign labor service cooperation by means of assigning sailors (excluding fishery crew) to foreign countries will be separately formulated by competent traffic and transportation department of the State Council in accordance with Regulation of the People’s Republic of China on Seamen and relevant provisions of these Regulations.

Skills & Qualification Recognition Training Certificate for Overseas Chinese Workers
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment Under the Regulations on Management of Foreign Labour Service Cooperation, which came into effect on 1 August 2012, the Foreign Labor Service Cooperation Enterprise are required to arrange service personnel to receive trainings on professional skill, safety precaution knowledge and foreign language necessary for working abroad as well as relevant laws, religion and social customs of the country or district where the employing project is located.
Labour Market Analysis China International Contractors Association issues an annual report on China international labour cooperation.
Publication and Reports
Name of publication/ reports Year of publication Download
Annual Report on China International Labour Cooperation

Yearly

Undownloadable

India

CP FOCAL POINT

Ministry of External Affairs

Akbar Bhawan, Chanakyapuri,
New Delhi – 110021

Capital:New Dehli Area:3,287,263 sq km Languages:Hindi, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Manipuri, Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu. English is used for official work. Population:1.295 billion (World Bank, 2014) Population Growth(annual %):1.2 (World Bank, 2014) Urban Population(% of total):32 (World Bank, 2014) Fertility Rate Total (birth per woman):2.4 (World Bank, 2014) Adult Literacy Rate(15+ years, both sexes, %):72.1 (UNESCO UIS Estimation, 2015) Human Development Index:0.609 (Rank: 130) (2015, UNDP) GDP:2.049 trillion USD (World Bank, 2014) GDP Per Capital:1,581.5 USD (World Bank, 2014) Net Migration Rate(per 1000):0.4 (2014, UNDP) International Migration Stock:Total: 5 338 486 (m: 2 736 253; vs. f: 2 602 233 (2013, UNICEF) Minimum Age For Employment:14

India

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

India has actively experienced mixed waves of migration flows ranging from emigration, transit and immigration for more than five decades. It is a major source country of high-skilled, low or semi-skilled manpower to several economies in the world. In the Gulf nations, the majority of Indian migrants are engaged in low or semi-skilled occupations. However, in developed countries of the north, most migrants are engaged in jobs belonging to the high-skilled category. Members of the Indian diaspora in countries, such as the US, the UK, Canada, and Australia hold prominent positions in society and politics. While emerging as a major source country of skilled migrants to various parts of the world, it also acts as a transit country for migrants from Asian countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh who are bound to Gulf and Europe.

Indian Diaspora is the second largest in the world, comprising of 25 million people spread over 130 countries today (OECD). Over the recent years, remittances received particularly from Asian countries and North America have grown steadily from USD 121 million in 1970 to USD 70.39 billion in 2014, representing 3.4% of India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and making India the global lead in remittance receiving (World Bank, 2014).

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Department of Overseas Indian Affairs, Ministry of External Affairs Provision of information, partnerships and facilitation for all matters related to Overseas Indians in four service areas: Diaspora Services; Financial Services; Emigration Services; Management Services. URL
Key legislation and policy
Legislation/ policy Key aspects Download
Emigration Amendments Rules 2009 Included new provisions on: recruitment agent may represent the employer with a power of attorney; requirement for recruitment agencies to register with the registering authority. PDF
Emigration Act 1983   Sets up procedures for overseas employment, both for potential migrants (Emigration Clearance) and recruitment agencies (Certificate). PDF
Passports Act, 1967 The Passports Act provides for the issue of passports and travel documents to regulate the departure from India of citizens of India and other persons and for matters incidental or ancillary thereto  n/a
India’s Foreigners Act, 1946 The Act confers upon the Central Government certain powers in respect of the entry of foreigners into India, their presence therein and their departure there from. It extends to the whole of India. The Central Government may, by order, make provisions with respect to all foreigners for prohibiting, regulating or restricting the entry of foreigners into India or their departure therefrom or their presence or continued presence therein.  n/a
Bilateral agreement on Labour Migration
Memorandums of Understanding on Labour Migration Qatar (1985; 2007); Jordan (1988); UAE (2006; 2011; 2014); Kuwait (2007); Oman (2008); Malaysia (2009); Bahrain (2009); Saudi Arabia (2014)
Memorandum of Understanding between Ministry of Skills and Entrepreneurship, Government of India and National Qualifications Authority of United Arab Emirates (UAE)on cooperation for Skill development and mutual recognition of qualifications – 2016
Specific to domestic workers Saudi Arabia (2012)
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Skills & Qualification Recognition The National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) was launched in 2013 in order to organize all qualifications related to knowledge, skills and aptitude in a rank of 10 levels.
Ethical Recruitment India has taken several policy measures since 2007 for the protection and welfare of Indian female domestic workers to GCC countries for employment, including the requirement of the provision of bank guarantee of US$ 2,500 from a foreign employer to the Indian Embassy.
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment An Overseas Workers Resource Centre (OWRC) operates a 24-hour/7-day a week helpline in vernacular languages. OWRC provides information on recruitment agencies, and responds and monitors complaints from migrant workers.
Remittances The Mahatma Gandhi Pravasi Suraksha Yojana is operated as a voluntary co-contribution scheme that provides Pension, Savings and Insurance support for labour migrants.
Others Pravasi Bharatiya Bima Yojana (PBBY) insurance policy is specially designed for Indian emigrants who are abroad on a valid visa for purposes of employmentThe policy covers a minimum sum of INR. 1 Million payable to the nominee/legal heir in the event of death or permanent disability of any Indian emigrant who goes abroad for employment purposes after obtaining emigration clearance from the concerned Protector of Emigrants (POE). The validity of the policy is for a minimum period of two years or the actual period of employment contract, whichever is longer.

Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF) has established in the 43 Indian Missions across the world in countries that have a significant overseas Indian population. The Indian Community Welfare Fund (ICWF) is aimed at providing ‘on site' welfare services on a means tested basis in the most deserving cases including, Boarding and lodging for distressed overseas Indian workers in Household / domestic sectors and unskilled labourers, Extending emergency medical care to the overseas Indians in need, Providing air passage to stranded overseas Indians in need, Providing initial legal assistance to the overseas Indians in deserving cases, Expenditure on incidentals and for airlifting the mortal remains to India or local cremation/burial of the deceased overseas Indian in such cases where a sponsor is unable or unwilling to do so as per the contract and the family is unable to meet the cost.

 

Indonesia

CP FOCAL POINT

Ministry of Manpower

Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto Kav. 51 Jakarta 12950

Tel : +62 21 5260 489 Fax : +62 21 5252 538
Capital:Jakarta Area:1,860,360 sq km Languages:Bahasa Indonesia Population:254.5 million (World Bank, 2014) Population Growth(annual %):1.3 (World Bank, 2014) Urban Population(% of total):53 (UNICEF, 2012) Fertility Rate Total (birth per woman:2.5 (World Bank, 2014) Adult Literacy Rate(15+ years, both sexes, %):93.8 (UNESCO UIS Estimation, 2015) Human Development Index:0.684 (Rank: 110) (UNDP, 2014) GDP:888.5 billion USD (World Bank, 2014) GDP Per Capital:3, 491.9 USD (World Bank, 2014) Net Migration Rate(per 1000):-0.6 (UNDP, 2014) International Migration Stock:Total: 295 433 (m: 183 002 vs. f: 112 431) (2013, UNICEF) Minimum Age For Employment:15

Indonesia

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

Migration from Indonesia has been a constant in the story of the country but labour migration has significantly increased in the last twenty years. Malaysia is the main destination for Indonesian labour migrants, followed by the Middle East Region and Singapore. Indonesia is one of the largest countries of origin of female migrant workers who are employed as domestic workers and caregivers, particularly in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. Most of labour migrants are unskilled and male migrants usually work in agriculture, construction, manufacturing and service sectors.

Remittances from Indonesian workers abroad have grown rapidly in the recent years and with an inflow of 8.5 billion USD, Indonesia ranks as the second largest recipient in Southeast Asia, after the Philippines (World Bank, 2014). However, compared to the large scale of the Indonesia’s economy, remittances represent only 1% of the GDP (World Bank, 2014). The share of remittances sent through informal channels and brought back in cash and gifts is still significant even though banking channel is growing as a formal remittance system. Remittances are mostly used for fulfilling daily needs such as food, education and health and in some circumstances for investment such as house, land and small business.

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Ministry of Manpower, Republic of Indonesia Issuing regulation on labour migration; monitoring the quality of the training centers for overseas workers owned by private recruitment agencies through its Directorate of Employment Observation. URL
National Agency for the Placement and Protection of Migrant Workers (BNP2TKI) Operation and implementation of the placement of Indonesian overseas workers (specifically G-to-G scheme) and protection of all overseas workers;  Provision of pre-departure orientations. URL
 
Key legislation and policy

Indonesia has several regulations pertaining to placement and protection of migrant workers, relevant with Indonesian government effort to establish improved recruitment and placement procedures as well as to provide better protection through improvement of current Law.

 

Legislation/ policy Key aspects Download
Ministry of Manpower Regulations No 24/2014 regarding amendment to PER.10/MEN/V/2009 on the Procedures of Granting, Renewal and Revocation of Licenses of Private Recruitment Agency The Recruitment Agency who has been punished with an administrative sanction in which their Recruitment License (SIPPTKI) being revoked, the person in charge (PIC) of this Recruitment Agency could not be elected as person in charge in another Recruitment Agency for next 5 year.  n/a
Ministry of Manpower Regulations No 23/2014 on the Procedures of Return from Destination Country to Place of Origin for Indonesian Migrant Workers Regulating the procedure of the return from destination country to their place of origin. This regulation is permitting migrant worker to return by them self without the assistance of the government or agency. Before their departure, the migrant worker should report their departure to the Indonesian Embassy in destination countries.
BNP2TKI should record the return of migrant worker by coordinating with Indonesian Embassy.
 n/a
Ministry of Manpower Regulations No 22/2014 on Placement and Protection of Indonesian Migrant Workers.
  • This Ministerial Regulation was the amendment of the Ministerial regulation No 14/2010 on Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers
  • Every Recruitment Agency should have SIP (Surat Izin Rekrut – Recruitment License) issued by BNP2TKI
  • Migrant workers candidate should have a competence license issued by BNSP
  • Cost Structure; migrant worker candidate will have to pay the document fee, medical and psychological examination, job training and competency license/certificate, working visa, accommodation and consumption during their job training, air fare ticket and airport tax, local transportation from their home to the training center, insurance.
 n/a
Ministry of Manpower Regulations No 1/2012 regarding amendment to Per.07/MEEN/V/2010 on Migrant Workers Insurance Regulating the insurance claim process and requirement. In addition, this regulation also stated that if the migrant worker passed away, the government will provide their family with life insurance with the amount IDR. 75.000.000  n/a
Presidential Regulation No. 81/2006 on the National Authority for the Placement and Protection of Indonesian Overseas Workers National Authority for the placement and Protection of Indonesian Overseas Worker is the main government body who mandated on placement and protection of Indonesian worker. This National Authority composed of the representative of government agencies which responsible on the placement and protection of Indonesian workers abroad.  n/a
Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration Regulations No 04/MEN/II/2005 on Implementation of the Pre-departure Briefing of Indonesian Migrant Workers Abroad, Pre Departure Orientation (PDO) shall be conducted maximum 2 days before the worker departed. There are 2 mandatory session: 1) Law and Regulation in Destination Country and 2) Working Contract. In addition this PDO session also has several compulsory sessions that are: 1) Custom, 2) Culture, 3) The Dangerous of Drug and HIV/AIDS, 4) Risk of Migration in Destination Countries, 5) Remittance, 6) Mental Development and 7) Awareness on the travel document and travel arrangement.  n/a
Law No. 39/2004 on Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers Abroad (amendment in progress) Indonesian migrant workers are allowed to a destination country whose government has entered into a written agreement with the Government of Indonesia, or which has legislation protecting foreign workers PDF
Bilateral agreement on Labour Migration
Memorandums of Understanding on labour migration Jordan (2001); Taiwan Province of PRC (2004, 2008); United Arab Emirates (2007; 2010); Republic of Korea (2010); Saudi Arabia (2014)14)
Specific to domestic workers   Jordan (2009); Malaysia (2006; additional protocol 2011)
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Policies / Legislation framework Ratification of the UN Convention on the Protection of Migrant Workers and Their Families in 2012 through its national law of Law No. 6/2012. This obliges the government to include the human rights protection approach towards migrant workers and their families into the Labour Migration Law.
Skills & Qualification Recognition Badan Nasional Sertifikasi Profesi (BNSP) or National Authority for Professional Certification is a leading agency under the President responsible to provide certification for personnel and professionals, including migrant workers, for employment.
Ethical Recruitment The Ministry of Manpower with assistance from IOM developed an SOP to improve migrant workers recruitment monitoring through the renewal of the private recruitment agency’s licensing. The SOP has been handed to the Ministry and will be officially enacted soon.
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment BNP2TKI acts as leading agency on pre departure orientation services, serving ten hours a day of the orientation with provision of five modules containing: national and host country’s law and regulations, working contract, host country’s culture, personality development and drugs, HIV/AIDS and contagious disease. The agency with assistance from IOM has improved the training modules set to give the trainers the revised handbook. BNP2TKI has recently issued the new Chairman Regulation No 06/2016 on the Pre Departure Orientation for Migrant Workers Candidate Working in South Korea.
Remittances The Indonesian Central Bank (Bank Indonesia) regulates international money transfers to prevent illegal/illicit remittances used as well as the promotion of the use of formal remittance channels for migrants to make remittances.
Labour Market Analysis The Ministry of Manpower has a dedicated unit called Labour Market Directorate under the Directorate General on Development of Workers Placement and Expansion of Employment Opportunities. The Directorate has

 

Nepal

CP FOCAL POINT

Ministry of Labour and Employment (MOLE)

Singhadurbar,
Kathmandu, Nepal

Tel : +97 71 4211 889/+97 71 4211 991 Fax : +977-1- 4211877 Email : info@mole.gov.np
Capital:Kathmandu Area:147,181 sq km Languages:Nepali Population:28.17 million (World Bank, 2014) Population Growth(annual %):1.2 (World Bank, 2014) Urban Population(% of total):18 (World Bank, 2014) Fertility Rate Total (birth per woman):2.2 (World Bank, 2014) Adult Literacy Rate(15+ years, both sexes, %):64.6 (UNESCO UIS Estimation, 2015) Human Development Index:0.548 (Rank:145) (UNDP, 2014) GDP:19.77 billion USD (World Bank, 2014) GDP Per Capital:654.0 USD (Undata, 2013) Net Migration Rate(per 1000):2.9 (UNDP, 2015) International Migration Stock:Total: 971 247 (m: 307 922 vs. f: 663 325) (UNICEF, 2013) Minimum Age For Employment:14

Nepal

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

The number of labour migrants leaving Nepal continues to increase since the liberalization on mobility in 1990. The top destinations to which Nepalese migrate include Malaysia, the Gulf countries and the Republic of Korea. The Nepali labour migrants have predominantly been men; however, there has been a significant increase in the number of permits acquired by women over the past years. Women are mainly employed as domestic workers while man work in sectors such as construction, hospitality and security guards.

The number of labour migrants is increasing every year and so is the scale of remittances they send back. Recorded remittance inflows reached 29.2% of GDP in 2014 (World Bank), which makes Nepal among the top 10 countries by remittance share of GDP. The vast majority of total remittances are used for daily consumption and in some case for loans repayment.

Characteristics

Foreign employment is indeed the most significant motivation for international migration from Nepal in the twenty - first century. More than 3.8 million permits to work abroad (excluding India) were issued by the Government during the 1993/94 – 2014/15 fiscal years, which represents almost 14 per cent of the current population. As well, according to the recent census data (2011), nearly 71 per cent of the total absent population (1,921,494), or people living out of the country (including living in India) cited private and institutional jobs abroad as the reasons for leaving

Destinations

Labour permits issued over the period of (2008/09-2014/15) to 110 countries is 33.3 per cent were for employment in Malaysia, followed by Qatar (at 19 per cent), Saudi Arabia (18.9 per cent), United Arab Emirates (9.8 per cent), Kuwait (2.5 per cent), Bahrain (0.9 per cent) and Oman (0.6 per cent). Among the other remaining popular countries and territories are Afghanistan, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon and Macau (China) and new emerging destination are Mauritius, Democratic Republic of Congo, Seychelles and Uzbekistan.

Sectors

The majority of the Nepali male migrants are serving in the service, manufacturing, construction, hospitality, security and agricultural sector and domestic and care giver sector with regards to women migrants.

Trends of Female Migration

The top-ten destinations for female labour migrants in the past seven fiscal years are United Arab Emirates (25,916 permits issued), Malaysia (23,427 permits issued), Kuwait (17,685 permits issued), Qatar (6,179 permits issued), Lebanon (4,164 permits issued), Cyprus (2,871 permits issued), Saudi Arabia (2,646 permits issued), Oman (2,538 permits), Republic of Korea (2,241 permits issued) and Bahrain (1,848 permits issued). Most of the labour permits renewed by female migrants were for the United Arab Emirates (at 37.8 percent), followed by Kuwait (28.6 per cent), Israel (at 8.8 per cent), Lebanon (5.6 per cent) and Oman (3.9 per cent).

Trends of Remittance

Subsequently, there has been a huge increase in the inflow of remittances, from 58.6 billion rupees (NPR) in 2003/04 to NPR589.5 billion in 2014/15. Remittances contributed a 29 percentage share of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003/04 and 27.7 per cent in 2014/15. The remittance flow, therefore, is a major contributor to development financing in Nepal.

Mechanisms for Remitting Money to Nepal

There are four key mechanisms for remitting money to Nepal through banks, remittance transfer companies and hundi (informal transfer through people) and hand carry.  

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Ministry of Labour and Employment (MOLE) Labour administration and management, including regulating foreign employment URL
Department of Foreign Employment (DOFE) Migrant workers’ rights, control and approval of recruiting agencies, issue of “labour approval” for foreign employment URL
Foreign Employment Promotion Board (FEPB), MOLE Promotion of foreign employment business; protection of the rights and interests of workers and foreign employment entrepreneurs. Duties and functions are stipulated in Section 38 of the “Foreign Employment Act, 2064 (2007)”. URL
Foreign Employment Tribunal (FET) To handle and settle Foreign Employment cases related to fraud, human trafficking  n/a
Key legislation and policy
Legislation/ policy Key aspects Download
Foreign Employment Policy 2012 The objective of the policy is to provide knowledge and skill based training to Nepalese human resources to develop skilled, empowered and competitive as per demand of international market creating safe, organized and respectable environment for foreign employment. PDF 
Foreign Employment Act, 2007. In order to better protect migrant workers, it sets out rules for recruitment agencies, establishes a bank guarantee system and a welfare fund. PDF
The Foreign Employment Regulation, 2008 The regulation sets out rules for licensing institutions that carry out foreign employment business and approval and selection of workers for foreign empowerment. PDF
National Strategic Action Plan on Foreign Employment 2015 To implement the policy and acts and regulations  n/a
Bilateral agreement on Labour Migration
MoUs on Labour Migration Qatar (2005; 2009); Rep. of Korea (2007); UAE (2007); Bahrain (2008); Japan (2009). The Government is also taking into consideration signing labour agreements with Oman, Lebanon and Malaysia.
Specific to domestic workers Israel (G to G) for care givers (domestic workers) Saudi Arabia (specific to domestic workers in the pipeline)
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Policies / Legislation framework Free Visa Free Ticket, Zeroing the cost of migration, GCC and Malaysia: Free-visa-free-ticket is a newly enforced provision of the Government of Nepal that came into effect from July 8, 2016. It basically obligates the employers from labour receiving countries to bear cost of visa processing and air ticket.
Ethical Recruitment In April 2015, the Government endorsed and implemented a new guideline on recruitment process of domestic workers in foreign employment.
The MOLE has developed a Standard Operating Procedures to monitor the Recruitment Agencies and the Pre-departure Orientation Training Centers
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment The MRC at FEPB in Kathmandu functions as a central level MRC which links the existing MRCs across the nation. It acts as an information repository as well as facilitates the process by which MRCs across the nation have standardized relevant information service to potential migrant workers.
FEPB provides two types of community level orientations: one orientation focuses on introduction of labour migration, its benefits and risks, and migrant workers’ rights, and another one is pre-decision training to enable potential migrants to assess their situations before making a decision on migration for employment.
The MOLE has developed a pre-departure orientation curriculum and provides PDO classes for free for the women migrant workers. 
Remittances The 2012 Foreign Employment Policy established a dedicated Labour Bank which would offer subsidized loans to potential migrants to cover departure costs and a remittance account.
Others Foreign Employment Tribunal (2010) deals with cases related to foreign employment in an expeditious manner.

 

Publication and Report
Labour Migration for Employment: A Status Report for Nepal: 2013/2014
Labour Migration for Employment: A Status Report for Nepal: 2013/2014
Publication in 2014 Download

Last updated of this page: 21 / 09 / 2016

Pakistan

CP FOCAL POINT

Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development

5th & 6th Floor, Block-B, Pak. Secretariat, Islamabad

Capital:Islamabad Area:796,095 sq km Languages:Urdu Population:185 million (World Bank, 2014) Population Growth(annual %):1.6 (World Bank, 2014) Urban Population(% of total):38 (World Bank, 2014) Fertility Rate Total (birth per woman):3.7(World Bank, 2013) Adult Literacy Rate(15+ years, both sexes, %):58.6 (UNESCO UIS Estimation, 2015) Human Development Index:0 .538(Rank: 147) (UNDP, 2014) GDP:243.6 billion USD (World Bank, 2014) GDP Per Capital:1,316.6 USD (World Bank, 2014) Net Migration Rate(per 1000):1.8 (UNDP, 2014) International Migration Stock:: 4 080 766 Total: (m: 2 307 164 vs. f: 1 773 602) (2013, UNICEF) Minimum Age For Employment:14

Pakistan

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

Pakistan has a long history of out-migration and destination countries are as diverse as over 50 countries. While Pakistan has large diaspora populations in some OECD countries, the majority of low-skilled and semi-skilled labourers, predominantly men, migrate to GCC countries for temporarily work, with Saudi Arabia being the top destination, followed by UAE, Oman, Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain. Female labour migrants are estimated to be very low, and women under 35 years are required permission from the government to work overseas (The UN Asia-Pacific Regional Cooperation Mechanism Thematic Working Group on International Migration including Human Trafficking, 2012).

Labour migration has been a major source of financial contributions to Pakistan’s economy and remittances, which account for 7% of GDP (World Bank, 2014), represent the second largest source of foreign exchange after exports of the country. A system of financial incentives has been introduced for banks and other money transfer agents to encourage migrant workers to use formal channels to transfer their overseas earnings.

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development Promote welfare of Overseas Pakistanis; resolve grievances/problems of Overseas Pakistanis; formulate progressive Emigration Policy. URL
Bureau Of Emigration and Overseas Employment (BE&OE)  Control and regulate emigration and promote the interests and welfare of Pakistani migrant workers. URL
Key legislation and policy
Legislation/ policy Key aspects Download
Emigration Ordinance 1979 It aims to promote overseas employment and protect migrant workers. The recruitment process is subject to a licensing requirement. PDF 
Emigration Rules 1979 The rules define powers and duties of government positions responsible for overseas employment matters including protection of migrant workers. PDF
National Policy for Overseas Pakistanis 2013 The policy focuses on maximizing welfare and empowerment of Pakistani diaspora working abroad.  n/a
Bilateral agreement on Labour Migration
MoUs on Labour Migration Qatar (1978, 2008); Kuwait (1995); Jordan (2006); Malaysia (2006); UAE (2006); Rep. of Korea (2008); Bahrain (2014)
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment The Migrant Resource Centre provides multifarious services to potential and intended migrant workers including counseling, pre-departure orientation and dissemination of information on safe and legal ways of migration. Specific pre-departure orientations for migrant workers proceeding to Malaysia and the Republic of Korea have been designed to familiarize migrants with laws, culture and work place of these two destination countries.
Remittances Several schemes of remittance transfers have been introduced to encourage remittances through formal channels (i.e. exemptions on custom duties).
Others BE&OE and the State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan provides overseas migrants with group insurance. The Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development has established 19 offices of Community Welfare Attaches (CWAs,) in 16 Pakistan Diplomatic Missions in 14 countries to better assist Pakistani migrant workers and promote their welfare. In 2014 Overseas Pakistan Foundation (OPF) has signed a MoU with Punjab Employees Social Security Institution (PESSI) for extending health facilities to overseas Pakistanis and their families on discounted rates in the province of Punjab. The OPF Pension Scheme for Overseas Pakistanis was launched in 2001 to provide pension benefits to Pakistanis living abroad.

 

Publication and Report
Government of Pakistan Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human resource development Islamabad - Final Year Book 2013-2014
Government of Pakistan Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human resource development Islamabad - Final Year Book 2013-2014
Publication in 2014 Download

Last updated of this page: 21 / 09 / 2016

Philippines

CP FOCAL POINT

Department of Labor and Employment

Building, Muralla Wing cor. General Luna St., Intramuros, Manila, 1002, Philippines

Capital:Manila Area:796,095 sq km Languages:Filipino, English Population:99.14 million (World Bank, 2014) Population Growth(annual %):1.6 (World Bank, 2014) Urban Population(% of total):44 (World Bank, 2014) Fertility Rate Total (birth per woman):3.0 (World Bank, 2014) Adult Literacy Rate(15+ years, both sexes, %):96.2 (UNESCO UIS Estimation, 2015) Human Development Index:0.668 (Rank: 115) (UNDP, 2015) GDP:284.8 billion USD (World Bank, 2014) GDP Per Capital:2,872.5 USD (World Bank, 2014) Net Migration Rate(per 1000):n.a. (2014, UNDP) International Migration Stock:Total: 213,150 (m: 110,421 vs. f: 102,729 ) (UNICEF, 2013) Minimum Age For Employment:15

Philippines

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

Over 10.4 million Filipino migrants live and work in diverse occupational categories in over 224 countries and territories around the world. Through nearly four decades, the Philippines has emerged as one of the top origin countries of labour migrants where overseas employment has become an enduring feature of the country’s economy. Some 1.8 million Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) left the Philippines in 2014 alone for overseas employment, of which more than 400,000 were Filipino seafarers who account for 30% share in world seafaring. The Gulf Region continues to host more than 45% of the Philippines’ land-based OFWs, with largest proportions working in Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates.

In 2015, female OFWs accounted for 51% of all migrant workers and were mostly employed in domestic work, nursing, sales and in factories. Male OFWs, accounting for 48.9% of all migrant workers were mostly employed in construction, operations and maintenance, manufacturing and other service industries. An estimated 33.2% of OFWs are unskilled workers while 9.5% are professionals and middle level skills and technicians (Philippine Statistics Authority, 2015). The recruitment industry consists of approximately of 1000 recruitment and manning agencies, generally organized according to specific markets and occupational specializations to which they cater.

The Philippines is the top remittance receiving country in Southeast Asia with an annual remittance inflow of USD 28.4 billion in 2014, accounting for 10% of the GDP (World Bank, 2014). Education, shelter, health and consumption are the top absorbers of remittance spending. As part of its overall financial inclusion policy, the Philippines has adopted a number of incentives to encourage remittances and harness its development potential through measures such as the provision of savings and investment facilities, financial literacy training for remitters and dependents and provision of tax incentives.

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Department of Labour and Employment (DOLE) Formulates and implements policies and programs, and serve as the policy-advisory arm of the Executive Branch in the field of labor and employment. URL
Philippines Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) Promulgates and Implements policies and programmes to regulate recruitment, accredit foreign employers, document OFW’s , adjudicate recruitment or employment conflicts , negotiate bilateral agreements. URL
Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) An OFW membership institution attached to DOLE, OWWA administers the Welfare Fund to protect and promote the welfare of OFWs and their dependents through its 31 overseas posts in 27 countries and regional presence. URL
National Reintegration Center for OFW Manages, coordinates and implements national reintegration programs for OFW. URL
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority  Provides direction, policies, programs and standards towards quality technical education and skills development. URL
Commission of Filipinos Overseas (CFO) Promoting programs and policy to strengthen and empower the Overseas Filipino permanent migrant community. URL
Key legislation and policy
Legislation/ policy Key aspects Download
Republic Act No. 8042: Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995 (amended in 2007 and 2010). Aims at enhancing the protection of migrant workers and their families through a comprehensive framework from the recruitment process to assistance to migrants in distress.  n/a
Republic Act No. 10022 Act amending Republic Act No. 8042 to further improve the standard of protection and promotion of welfare of Filipino Migrant Workers, their families and overseas Filipinos in distress. PDF
Omnibus rules and regulations implementing the migrant workers and overseas Filipinos Act of 1995, as amended by Republic Act No. 10022 Implementing Rules and Regulations for Republic Act No. 8042, as amended by Republic Act No. 10022. PDF
POEA Rules and Regulations Governing the Recruitment and Employment of Land-based Overseas Workers Aims to promote and protect rights of Filipino migrant workers through regulation of recruitment, enforcement of decent terms and conditions of work; accreditation of foreign entities hiring Filipinos; full documentation of OFW’s leaving for overseas work; enforcement of sanctions against illegal recruiters & abusive employers; provision of legal assistance, pre-employment orientation, government placement, conciliation & mediation facilities, & other services.  n/a
Bilateral agreement on Labour Migration
MoUs on Labour Migration USA (1968); Papua New guinea (1979); Jordan (1981, 1988, 2010); Iraq (1982); Kuwait (1997; 2012); Qatar (1997; 2008); Norway (2001); UK (2002); Switzerland (2002); Bahrain (2003; 2007); Indonesia (2003); Japan (2003); Taiwan Province of PRC (2003); Rep. of Korea (2004, 2005, 2006, 2009; 2011); Laos (2005); Libya (2006); Spain (2006); UAE (2007); Canadian provinces (2008); New Zealand (2008); Lebanon (2012); Saudi Arabia (2013);
Specific to domestic workers Jordan (2012)
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Policies / Legislation framework
  • The law (Republic Act No. 10022) mandates that Filipino workers only be deployed to countries with which the Philippines “has concluded bilateral labour agreements or arrangements” and “guarantee to protect the rights of Filipino migrant workers,” as well as “observe and/or comply with the international laws and standards for migrant workers”.
  • The migrant workers – land based, seafarer and women workers – are represented in the Governing Board of the POEA as well as in the Board of Trustees of the OWWA. These are policy making bodies of the key institutions managing overseas employment.
Skills & Qualification Recognition The Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF) – as a national policy- sets up the national standards and levels for outcomes of education and training, skills and competencies and aims to support international mobility increasing recognition of the value and comparability of Philippine qualifications.
Ethical Recruitment
  • Private employment agencies are subjected to rigid requirements before obtaining a license which includes completion of orientation course, capitalization, posting of performance bonds, inspection of recruitment facilities, and character verification of officers & staff.
  • Recruiters’ performance is subject to an organized monitoring system, with a table of sanctions for violators.
  • Recruitment industry is organized into associations, represented in the POEA Governing Board, has a compact on ethical recruitment with government and served as the first Chair of OESPAAA (Alliance of Asian Associations of Overseas Employment Service Providers)
  • Recruiters with clean records and notable performance are given awards, & other incentives.
  • A licensed recruitment agency assumes joint and several liability (JSL) with their foreign principal or foreign employer, in virtue of the law on agency. This JSL empowers an aggrieved migrant worker with an option to file a case in Philippine courts should a case fail to prosper through the court system of the destination country or the foreign employer does not cooperate to address the complaint of the worker.
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment
  • Since 1982 the Philippines have implemented a free Pre-departure Orientation Session (PDOS) for migrant workers which has been expanded by two other information programs: the pre-employment seminar (PEOS) and the post-arrival orientation seminar (PAOS).
  • The Philippines maintains the presence of the Philippine Overseas Labor Offices or POLO’s as well as the Filipino Workers Resource Centers (FWRC) in some 37 major destinations of Filipino workers to ensure the provision of onsite assistance and welfare services. These facilities are co-funded from the OWWA Welfare Fund programme and annual government budget appropriations.
Remittances
  • Remittance service providers are given slot in the PDOS to orient OFWs how to remit their earnings through the banks.
  • Financial literacy training is being undertaken at different levels (at pre-departure, post arrival and return; to migrants & their families, in school, at community and workplace, by the government, private sector and the civil society) to provide orientation on savings and different paths to investments.
Labour Market Analysis
  • Labour attaches have the obligation to monitor market development, to feed into policy pronouncements, disseminate to the private recruitment industry, or as points for labour market negotiations
  • Industry forum is periodically held for labour market practitioners to articulate their analysis of the market situation and deliberate on market issues such as skills competitiveness, efficiency and integrity of recruitment, pre-departure orientation and medical examination.
  • Proactive in analyzing effects of economic recession, global or regional financial crisis, downfall in the price of petroleum income and resultant business retrenchments –how they all impact on the Philippines stronghold in the market.
Others A number of special funds, other than the membership-based Welfare fund, is appropriated by government as follows: Legal Assistance Fund (to cover legal counsel and representation costs in foreign courts) and Emergency Repatriation Fund. Along with the mandatory insurance covering migrant workers and the liability of foreign employers to assume the cost of repatriation during times of crisis and emergency, the Repatriation Fund is a resource recourse made available especially in times of the need for mass repatriation. A special displacement assistance grant is also made available by the National Reintegration Center for OFWs.

 

Publication and Report
CAIRTIM (Campaign Against Illegal Recruitment, Trafficking and Irregular Migration) Manual , (IOM; MDG-YEM-Youth Employment & Migration)
CAIRTIM (Campaign Against Illegal Recruitment, Trafficking and Irregular Migration) Manual , (IOM; MDG-YEM-Youth Employment & Migration)
2nd edition 2015, 1st edition 2013 Download
Country Migration Report. The Philippines -2013 IOM
Country Migration Report. The Philippines -2013 IOM
Publication in 2013 Download
Financial Planner: Remittance Investment Advocacy Programme (IOM/EU)
Financial Planner: Remittance Investment Advocacy Programme (IOM/EU)
Publication in 2013 Download

Last updated of this page: 21 / 09 / 2016

Sri Lanka

CP FOCAL POINT

Ministry of Foreign Employment

51/2/1, 2nd Floor, Assert Arcade Building
York Street, Colombo 01.

Tel : +94 11 2331 336 / +94 11 2330 307
Capital:Colombo (Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte) Area:65,610 sq km Languages:Sinhala, Tamil, English Population:20.77 million (World Bank, 2014) Population Growth(annual %):0.9 (World Bank, 2014) Urban Population(% of total):18 (World Bank, 2014) Fertility Rate Total (birth per woman):2.1 (World Bank, 2014) Adult Literacy Rate(15+ years, both sexes, %):92.6 (UNESCO UIS Estimation, 2015) Human Development Index:0 .757 (Rank: 73) (UNDP, 2014) GDP:78.82 billion USD (World Bank, 2014) GDP Per Capital:3,794.9 USD (World Bank, 2014) Net Migration Rate(per 1000):- 3 (UNDP, 2015) International Migration Stock:Total: 324 977 (m: 163 281 vs. f: 161 696) (UNICEF, 2013) Minimum Age For Employment:18

Sri Lanka

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

International labour migration from Sri Lanka has constantly increased in the last two decades and about 25 percent of the total Sri Lankan labour force in 2010 was employed abroad. Most of the Sri Lankan overseas workers are concentrated in low skilled categories, with the vast majority of females employed as the domestic housemaids predominantly in the Middle East. Even though the share of female migrant workers has fallen from approximately 75 per cent of the total departures in 1997 to 37 per cent in 2014 (Ministry of Foreign Employment, 2016), they still represent an important quota of the overseas workers. The Middle Eastern region is the top destination area which absorbs male migrants mainly in the construction and service sectors. Furthermore, in 2013, a majority of female migrant workers were employed as Domestic Housekeeping Assistants in the Middle East, with approximately 33 % of all female migrant workers being employed in this category (Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment, 2015).

In line with the migration tends, the country has been experiencing a surge in remittances inflows, which account for 8.9 percent of the GDP in 2014 (World Bank). Continued increase in remittances over the years has contributed to increasing national savings, reducing the savings-investment gap (Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 2014). Worker remittances have exceeded the earnings of the main agricultural and industrial export. While there are no reliable data on informal money transfer system, a significant amount of remittance flow remains unrecorded. Foreign employment contributes to national development in various ways. Remittances, which have contributed to support Sri Lanka’s Balance of Payments (BOP), are spent mainly in housing, education and to start up small business.

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Ministry of Foreign Employment (MFE) Formulation and implementation of policies, programmes and projects for Foreign Employment industry; Promotion of Foreign Employment Welfare of migrant workers; Regulation and Supervision of Employment Agencies. URL
Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment (SLBFE) Licensing of Recruitment Agencies, Registration and Training of Migrant Workers, Complaint Management System, Law Enforcement, Marketing and Research, Migrant Workers Welfare URL
Sri lanka Foreign Employment Agency (SLFEA) A 100% government owned institution, and a subsidiary of Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment, Sri Lanka Foreign Employment Agency was established in 1996. Its main aim is to provide an efficient and appropriate service to those seeking employment abroad, and serve as the primary recruitment agency in the country URL
Key legislation and policy
Legislation/ policy  Key aspects  Download  
Sub policy on Return and Re-integration of Migrant Workers –Sri lanka (2015) The sub-policy complements the National Labour Migration Policy and covers: social reintegration, economic reintegration, physical and psychological wellbeing of returnees and their family members, mobilization and empowerment of migrant returnees, and the effective management of the return and reintegration process. PDF
Sri Lanka National Migration Health Policy (2012) Recognizes the needs of out-bound, internal and in-bound migrant populations and includes policy responses and a detailed action plan of strategies and actions to address these needs. PDF
National Labour Migration Policy for Sri Lanka (2009) It is focused on three major areas: governance of the migration process, protection and empowerment of migrant workers and their families, and linking migration and development processes.  PDF
Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment Act of 1985 Establishes the SLBFE, sets out licensing requirements for foreign recruitment agencies and establishes a Workers’ Welfare Fund PDF
Bilateral agreement on Labour Migration
MoUs on Labour Migration UAE (2007); Qatar (2008); Libya (2008); Jordan (2006); Bahrain (2008); Republic of Korea (2004,2010); Italy (2011); Oman (2012; 2014); Kuwait (2012); Seychelles (2012); Saudi Arabia (2014)
Specific to domestic workers  Saudi Arabia (2014)
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Policies / Legislation framework The national Labour Migration policy is a comprehensive framework which aims to promote opportunities for all migrant workers through the institution of policies, laws, regulations, services and facilities for migrant workers and their families. Services are provided at pre-departure stage, during the permanence abroad –trough Sri Lankan Diplomatic Mission- and for return and reintegration.
Skills & Qualification Recognition In 2012 Sri Lanka established the Qualification Framework (SLQF) as a system to facilitate the qualification recognition and accreditation among different institutions across Sri Lanka. The identified levels of qualifications, their minimum entry requirements and the possible pathways of progression, facilitate the credit transfer, helps to evaluate qualification gained abroad, promoting national and international recognition at the same time.
Ethical Recruitment A Code of Ethical Conduct for Licensed Foreign Employment Agencies/Licensees was approved by SLBFE in August 2013 with the intention of streamlining the practices of recruitment agents, enhancing professionalism, responsibility and accountability and promoting transparency of business activities.
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment Safe Labour Migration Manual forms an information resource not only for government officers at District, Divisional and village level but also for all stakeholders working towards the empowerment and protection of migrant workers of Sri Lanka. This is an information guide targeted mainly providing information for the category of workers who are considered as low-skilled and under skilled workers such as those working in the domestic sector (housekeeping assistants, gardeners, drivers etc) and others such as factory workers and labourers. It is complete with handouts, audio-visual guides and annexes of key documents and information for greater understanding of those using it.
Others The “Operational Manual for Labour Sections of Sri Lankan Diplomatic Missions in Destination Countries (1st edition and 2nd edition in 2013)” seeks to enhance and develop the competencies of labour welfare officers to handle the issues and concerns of migrant workers. The availability of procedures and programmes in written form is essential for good management and is helpful in institutionalizing and standardizing operations/procedures, which ensures a rational environment for all parties concerned.
Publication and Report
Handbook for the Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment (SLBFE) on Identification, Protection and Referral of Victims of Human Trafficking
Handbook for the Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment (SLBFE) on Identification, Protection and Referral of Victims of Human Trafficking
Download
Migration Profile. Sri Lanka 2013- Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka 2013
Migration Profile. Sri Lanka 2013- Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka 2013
Publication in 2013 Download

Last updated of this page: 12 / 10 / 2016

Thailand

CP FOCAL POINT

Ministry of Labour

Mitmaitri Road, Dindaeng, Bangkok 10400

Tel : +66 22 3214 67 Fax : +66 22 4820 27 Email : info@labour.mail.go.th
Capital:Bangkok Area:513,120 sq km Languages:Thai Population:67.73 million (World Bank, 2014) Population Growth(annual %):0.4 (World Bank, 2014) Urban Population(% of total):49 (World Bank, 2014) Fertility Rate Total (birth per woman):1.5 (2011-2015, World Bank) Adult Literacy Rate(15+ years, both sexes, %):(15+ years, both sexes, %) 92.6 (UNESCO UIS Estimation, 2015) Human Development Index:0.726 (Rank: 93) (2014, UNDP) GDP:404.8 billion USD (World Bank, 2014) GDP Per Capital:5,917.9 USD (World Bank, 2014) Net Migration Rate(per 1000):0.4 (UNDP, 2014) International Migration Stock:Total: 3 721 735 (m: 1 877 391 vs. f: 1 844 344) (2013, UNICEF) Minimum Age For Employment:15

Thailand

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

Migration for overseas employment is a relatively new phenomenon for Thailand as the significant movement of Thai workers out of the country began only during the 1970s. While the top destination countries during the 1980s were those of the Gulf Region, since 1990s Asian industrialized countries/ regions such as Taiwan Province of China, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong SAR of PRC, and the Republic of Korea have emerged as the new countries of destinations. While there is a consistent number of female migrant workers employed in the domestic work sector in Asia, the large majority of Thai migrants are male and are employed in construction, manufacturing and agriculture.

Even though the share of remittances to GDP is relatively small compared to the size of the Thai economy, accounting for 1.4 % of GDP in 2014 (World Bank), they represent an important source of income for Thai households who use them mainly for consumption purposes.

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Ministry of Labour Labour administration and protection; organize labour relation system; provide social security; skill development and promotion of employment; and the protection of job-seeker serves as the labour market information centre. URL
Department of Employment (DOE) Domestic Employment Service ; Overseas Employment Administration Alien Occupational Control; Vocational Guidance and Self - Employed Promotion; And job-seeker; Protection URL
Thailand Overseas Employment Administration (TOEA) Undertake the overseas employment for job-seeker; enrollment for job-seeker; organize a medical examination; skill testing; centralizing overseas employment information; administering Thai workers overseas; and facilitating overseas employment opportunities. URL
Key legislation and policy
Legislation/ policy Key aspects Download
Employment and Job-Seekers Protection Act of B.E. 2528 (1985) Sets out criteria and conditions to be met for overseas employment; skill testing unit ; fund for job-seeker working abroad; employment development and job-seekers protection; control; penalties PDF
Employment and Job-Seekers Protection Act of B.E. 2528 (1985). (amended in 1994 ) To improve the Act of B.E. 2528 (1985). by indicate - the employment development and job-seekers protection committee to give recommendation to the Minister related to policy ; measure for employment and job-seekers protection; for problems incurred in an employment for prevention and suppression of deceiving and fraud against job-seekers; Give counsels and advices and to perform other acts entrust by the Council of Ministers or the Minister. Issuance a license of skill testing of each occupation in accordance with the rules, procedure and conditions As prescribed by the Ministerial Regulations. URL
Employment and Job-Seekers Protection Act of B.E. 2528 (1985).(amend in 2001) To improve the Act of B.E. 2528 (1985).by indicate to arrange and assist the job-seeker who work or going to work abroad by extending in term of duration for fund for job - seekers working abroad PDF
Bilateral agreement on Labour Migration
MoUs/ agreements on Labour Migration Malaysia (2003); UAE (2007); Japan (2007) ; Qatar (2012); Korea (2016)
Specific to agriculture sector Israel (2007)
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Policies / Legislation framework
  • Thailand - Israel Cooperation on the Placement of Workers (TIC). The Department of Employment of Thailand has started to send workers from the agricultural sector to Israel under the Thailand Israel Employment Cooperation (TIC) secured via an Agreement with the International Organization for Migration (IOM). This scheme benefits the workers and reduces the cost for all Thai workers overseas.
  • Japan International Manpower Development Organization (IM Japan)-Thailand Overseas Employment Administration (TOEA) collaboration to launched an overseas training activity to enable job seekers to find training in Japan. Furthermore, IM Japan assists in the employment of returned trainees through programmes that are organized and held by Thailand.
  • The Ministry of Labour of the Kingdom of Thailand and The Ministry of Employment and Labour Of the Republic of Korea has collaborated to send Thai Workers to the Republic of Korea under the Employment (EPS). This program reduces the cost for Thai Workers and enlarge the cooperation.
Skills & Qualification Recognition A National Qualifications Framework has been recently approved in order to encourage the transfer of study units and credits and promote the moving of students and of labour.
Ethical Recruitment The Monitoring and Operating of the Recruitment Agencies: Steps and procedures for recruitment agencies” have been formulated to protect workers and monitor performance of the agencies to ensure a good practices. These are as follows:
  • To apply for a license to set up an overseas recruitment agency, the applying agency must have a capital of at least one million baht, and submit a cash guarantee, bond or surety from the bank with a deposit of at least five million baht to the Central Registrar of the DOE
  • In the process of overseas placement, the licensed recruitment agency must request a permission from the DOE prior to recruitment of workers or advertising of job vacancy. The recruitment agency is responsible for the worker’s physical examination, skill testing (if required), pre-departure orientation, and submissions of name list and details of working places overseas to the authorities in Thailand.
  • The licensed recruitment agencies are responsible for all expenses on the part of worker resulting from violation of contract committed by employer. In addition, the agency must give a refund to the worker if the agency fails to provide another job placement to the worker in accordance with the contract between the two sides, and there is no misconduct on the worker’s side.
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment All Thai workers going to work overseas must attend the Pre-departure Orientation conducted by the DOE free of charge, which provides them with basic knowledge about culture, working and living conditions, employment contract, laws and regulations related to their work as well as their benefits and welfare.
Licensed overseas recruitment agencies are also mandated to provide pre-departure orientation to workers.
Others The hotline numbers set up by labour authorities can provide an accessible means for migrant workers to file complaints anonymously.
Publication and Report
Thailand Migration Report 2014
Thailand Migration Report 2014
Publication in 2014 Download
Asia-Pacific Migration Report 2015
Asia-Pacific Migration Report 2015
Publication in 2015 Download

Last updated of this page: 21 / 09 / 2016

Viet Nam

CP FOCAL POINT

Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs

12 Ngo Quyen Str, Hoan Kiem District,
Hanoi

Fax : (04) 62 703 609
Capital:Hanoi Area:331,212 sq km Languages:Vietnamese Population:90.73 million (World Bank, 2014) Population Growth(annual %):1.1 (World Bank, 2014) Urban Population(% of total):33 (World Bank, 2014) Fertility Rate Total (birth per woman):2.0 (World Bank, 2014) Adult Literacy Rate(15+ years, both sexes, %):94.5 (UNESCO UIS Estimation, 2015) Human Development Index:0.666. (Rank: 116) (UNDP, 2014) GDP:186.2 billion USD (World Bank, 2014) GDP Per Capital:2,052.3 USD (World Bank, 2014) Net Migration Rate(per 1000):-0.4 (UNDP, 2014) International Migration Stock:Total: 68 290 (m: 39 636 vs. f: 28 654 ) (2013, UNICEF) Minimum Age For Employment:15

Viet Nam

Trends and characteristics of labour migration

On average, more than 80,000 Vietnamese workers leave Viet Nam every year to work in more than 40 countries of destination. In recent years, the major destination countries include China, Japan, Lao PDR, Malaysia, the Republic of Korea, and the Middle East. The migrant workers’ profiles range from a majority of low -semi skilled workers to highly skilled labourers and professionals. The share of female migrant workers is increasing and makes about 30% of the Vietnamese overseas workforce during the period 2007-2010 (Consular Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Viet Nam, 2012).

Remittance flow is one of the largest sources of external financing in Viet Nam and the country received USD 8.6 billion in 2011, ranking as the second top remittance receiving country in Southeast Asia (World Bank). The reason for the increasing flow of remittances to Viet Nam in recent years is due to the high number of Vietnamese migrant workers in diverse destinations, the state’s policy to encourage overseas Vietnamese to return to Viet Nam for investments, and government measures to encourage remittances (such as income tax exemptions). A large proportion of remittances has been invested in securities and real estate as well as in small business, healthcare and education. The improved quality of the banking remittance system encourages more and more migrant workers to send their earnings through formal channels.

Labour migration governance

Government authorities
Authority Key responsibilities Website links
Ministry of Labour-Invalids and Social Affairs (MoLISA) Developing overseas labour markets; providing guidelines on implementation of pre-departure training; managing license of institutions which sending workers overseas; managing the Overseas Work Assistance Fund. URL
Department of Overseas Labour (DOLAB), MoLISA Directly supervises labour migration of Viet Nam in coordination and cooperation with relevant departments/ agencies. URL
 
Key legislation and policy

The Government of Viet Nam issued regulations on sending laborers to work overseas for a definite period of time, grant economic organizations established and issue permits for sending labors activities, found funds to support overseas employment; and define compulsory pre-departure orientation training

Legislation/ policy Key aspects Download
Law No.72/2006/QH11 Law on Vietnamese Workers Working Abroad Under Contract. National Assembly. Dated 29 November, 2006. Effective July 2007. URL
Joint Circular No. 08/TTLT-BLĐTBXH-BTP Issued by the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs and the Ministry of Justice. Instructing the content of guarantee contract and liquidating guarantee contract for workers going to work abroad. 11 July, 2007. n/a
Decision No. 18/2007/QĐ-LĐTBXH dated 18 July, 2007 By the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs. Issuing the pre-departure orientation curriculum for migrant workers. n/a
Decision No. 19/2007/QĐ-LĐTBXH dated 18 July 2007 of the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs. Issuing the “Regulations on the organisation of the apparatus for sending workers abroad and specialized apparatus for pre departure orientation”. n/a
Decree No. 126/2007/ND-CP dated 1 August, 2007 Detailing and Guiding the Implementation of a Number of Articles of the Law on Vietnamese Workers under Overseas Employment Contracts. 1 August, 2007. URL
Decision No. 144/2007/QĐ-TTg dated 31 August, 2007 of the Prime Minister on the establishment, management and use of the Fund for Overseas Employment Support. n/a
Decision No. 20/2007/QĐ-LĐTBXH dated 2 August, 2007 of the Minister of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs, Issuing certificates for pre departure orientation for workers. n/a
Joint Circular No. 16/2007/TTLT-BLĐTBXH-BTC of the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs and Ministry of Finance dated 4 September, 2007. Detailing the brokerage charge and service charge in sending workers to work abroad. n/a
Joint Circular No. 17/2007/TTLT-BLĐTBXH-NHNNVN dated 4 September, 2007 of Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs and State Bank of Vietnam regulating the management and use of deposit of enterprise and workers who work abroad. n/a
Bilateral agreement on Labour Migration
MoUs on Labour Migration Malaysia (2015); Rep. of Korea (2015); Thailand (2015)
Good practices
Thematic area Key aspects
Pre-departure orientation & empowerment DoLAB inaugurated a Migration Resource Center in 2012 to provide potential migrant workers with accurate information and support services.
Remittances Decision No. 170/1999/QD-TTg, and its Amendment No. 78/2002/QD-TTg, facilitate remittances from overseas Vietnamese, ensuring the interests of the senders and the receivers and expanding forms of money transfer.
Publication and Report
Review of Vietnamese Migration Abroad 2012- Consular Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Viet Nam
Review of Vietnamese Migration Abroad 2012- Consular Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Viet Nam
Publication in 2012 Download

Last updated of this page: 12 / 10 / 2016