Trends and characteristics of labour migration
The number of labour migrants leaving Nepal continues to increase since the liberalization on mobility in 1990. The top destinations to which Nepalese migrate include Malaysia, the Gulf countries and the Republic of Korea. The Nepali labour migrants have predominantly been men; however, there has been a significant increase in the number of permits acquired by women over the past years. Women are mainly employed as domestic workers while man work in sectors such as construction, hospitality and security guards.
The number of labour migrants is increasing every year and so is the scale of remittances they send back. Recorded remittance inflows reached 29.2% of GDP in 2014 (World Bank), which makes Nepal among the top 10 countries by remittance share of GDP. The vast majority of total remittances are used for daily consumption and in some case for loans repayment.
Foreign employment is indeed the most significant motivation for international migration from Nepal in the twenty - first century. More than 3.8 million permits to work abroad (excluding India) were issued by the Government during the 1993/94 – 2014/15 fiscal years, which represents almost 14 per cent of the current population. As well, according to the recent census data (2011), nearly 71 per cent of the total absent population (1,921,494), or people living out of the country (including living in India) cited private and institutional jobs abroad as the reasons for leaving
Labour permits issued over the period of (2008/09-2014/15) to 110 countries is 33.3 per cent were for employment in Malaysia, followed by Qatar (at 19 per cent), Saudi Arabia (18.9 per cent), United Arab Emirates (9.8 per cent), Kuwait (2.5 per cent), Bahrain (0.9 per cent) and Oman (0.6 per cent). Among the other remaining popular countries and territories are Afghanistan, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon and Macau (China) and new emerging destination are Mauritius, Democratic Republic of Congo, Seychelles and Uzbekistan.
The majority of the Nepali male migrants are serving in the service, manufacturing, construction, hospitality, security and agricultural sector and domestic and care giver sector with regards to women migrants.
Trends of Female Migration
The top-ten destinations for female labour migrants in the past seven fiscal years are United Arab Emirates (25,916 permits issued), Malaysia (23,427 permits issued), Kuwait (17,685 permits issued), Qatar (6,179 permits issued), Lebanon (4,164 permits issued), Cyprus (2,871 permits issued), Saudi Arabia (2,646 permits issued), Oman (2,538 permits), Republic of Korea (2,241 permits issued) and Bahrain (1,848 permits issued). Most of the labour permits renewed by female migrants were for the United Arab Emirates (at 37.8 percent), followed by Kuwait (28.6 per cent), Israel (at 8.8 per cent), Lebanon (5.6 per cent) and Oman (3.9 per cent).